Sunday, June 15, 2014

Application Diversity in Open Display Networks

by Constantin Taivan, Rui José

Abstract. We envision that future public display networks will be more interactive and open to applications from third parties similar to what we already have with smartphones. This paper investigates the application landscape for interactive public displays aiming to understand what would be the design and usage space for this type of applications. In particular, we explore people’s perceptions and expectations regarding the diversity of applications that may emerge in future application ecosystems for public displays. We have devised a research methodology anchored on what is currently the rich and diverse range of applications in the mobile application market. We used a set of 75 mobile applications from Google Play application store and asked 72 participants about their relevance for public displays. The results showed that people had a clear preference for applications that disseminate content, and also that these preferences are affected by the type of location where the displays are deployed. These insights improve the understanding of the variables that may affect diversity in future display application ecosystems and inform the development of potential app stores in this context.

Understanding the Use of Web Technologies for Applications in Open Display Networks

by Constantin Taivan, Rui José, Bruno Silva

Abstract. Open display networks represent a new paradigm for large scale networks of public displays that are open to applications and content from third party sources. Web technologies may be particularly interesting as a technological framework for third-party application development in open display networks because of their portability and widespread use. However, there are also significant challenges involved that result from the specificities of this particular usage domain. In this work, we identify and characterize some of those specificities and analyze their implications for the use of web technologies. This contribution builds on our own experience with the development of multiple web-based applications for public displays and will inform the design of new models for this type of applications.

Situatedness for Global Display Web Apps

by Constantin Taivan, Rui José, Helena Rodrigues and Bruno Silva'

Abstract. Most display systems are making use of static definition for the places in which they are situated. The content shown on these displays is predefined as is the case of television broadcasting. In this paper we present an approach that allows local display managers, e.g., display owners, to instantiate global display web applications on each display basis. We describe an innovative model for content presentation that takes into consideration both the display environmental data, e.g., sensors and user interactions, and app specific configuration. This approach enables the content being shown to be highly personalized, thus reflecting the dynamic and situated behavior of global display web apps.

Design Considerations for Application Selection and Control in Multi-User Public Displays

by Constantin Taivan, Rui José, Bruno Silva, Ivan Elhart, Jorge Cardoso

Abstract: Urban spaces are increasingly embedded with various types of public digital displays. Many of these displays can be subject to multi-user interactions and support a broad range of applications. A fundamental implication emerging from the interactive nature of those applications is that users should have access to appropriate selection and control techniques that would allow them to drive the way applications are shown and used in the respective environment. Such techniques should enable each user to reason and express intentions about the system behavior, while also dealing with concurrent requests from multiple users in a way that is fair and clear. In this study, we aim to inform the definition of novel techniques for application selection and control in pervasive display environments that can address the above challenges. Drawing inspiration from traditional GUI interaction concepts we developed and deployed a public display system that supports multiple applications and is able to receive explicit content presentation requests from multiple viewers. Based on the experiment observations and interviews with the participants, we reached a set of design considerations for future pervasive displays environments that are open to third party applications providers and allow the audience to influence content presentation.

Selection and Control of Applications in Pervasive Displays

by Constantin Taivan, Rui José and Ivan Elhart

Abstract. Public displays are progressively embedded in urban settings.  Such displays become elements of an integrated pervasive ecosystem in which various displays with multiple applications are accessed by multiple viewers. Still, many public displays employ content that is based on pre-defined schedules as encountered in conventional digital signage systems. We envision future display deployments embedding many applications that are running concurrently and able to continuously react to users’ requests. In this paper, we investigate application selection and control concepts based on a mixed-initiative scenario in which display system and viewers are both involved in the process of content presentation. Our approach is inspired by traditional GUI interaction concepts and design considerations of sensing systems. Hence, this research would inform the design of novel techniques for application selection and control in pervasive display environments.

An Application Framework for Open Application Development and Distribution in Pervasive Display Networks

by Constantin Taivan, Rui José

Abstract. Displays technology experienced a considerable progress and screens are increasingly pervasive in public spaces. Most of the display systems exist as singular non-interactive units showing static images, power point presentations or product videos. Further developments will consider the possibility of connecting the displays towards the Pervasive Display Networks. This approach will provide the background for highly interactive applications, thus creating a novel and powerful global communication medium. The research activity proposed in this paper will consider the challenges raised by the need to support third-party application development and distribution. Consequently, the work will conceive and evaluate a web-based framework for the development, distribution and use of display-centred applications in Pervasive Display Networks.

Development Challenges in Web Apps for Public Displays

by Constantin Taivan, José Miguel Andrade, Rui José, Bruno Silva, Hélder Pinto and António Nestor Ribeiro

Abstract. Digital public displays can have a key role in urban ubiquitous computing infrastructures, but they have not yet managed to fill this role. A key step in that direction would be the emergence of an application model for open display networks that would enable anyone to create applications for display infrastructures. In this work, we study the development of web-based applications for public displays. We report on our experience of application development for real world public deployment and also on an experiment with external web developers to assess their ability to create such applications using our own development tools. The results show that the web-based app model can effectively be used in the context of public displays and that web developers are able to leverage upon their expertise to create this type of applications.